Given the scarcity of land resources, on the one hand, and the domination of ineffective state ownership in agriculture, on the other, agricultural productivity is quite low in Belarus: in 2010 the cereal yield was almost two times lower than in the EU.

The main branches of agriculture include animal husbandry, temperate crops, including flax, potatoes, rye, meat and dairy products.

In addition, Belarus faces the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. A quarter of the best arable land, located in the southern part of Belarus, has been poisoned by radioactive fallout and is not suitable for further usage for decades and even centuries. Yet, in recent years the government made a highly controversial decision to reuse some parts of the contaminated farmable lands.